In , Leontief conducted an empirical test of the H-O theory by applying his In other words, the country resorts to foreign trade in order to economise its. This result has come to be known as the Leontief Paradox. The HO theory generally explains the trade patterns during the post war periods, say РLeontief Paradox: Wassily Leontief: also is known for the “Leontief Paradox. In international trade: Factor endowments: the Heckscher-Ohlin theory.

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The HO theory generally explains the trade patterns during the post war periods, say – Leontief found that import substitutes of the US were more capital-intensive than its exports. Theseus’ ship List of Ship of Theseus examples Sorites. It is more likely that human capital had existed in both industries.

The exact assessment of the validity of H-O theory or Leontief paradox can be possible only after the quantification of the contribution of natural resources in a precise manner, gets materialised. Another study that provided support to the Leontief paradox was made by R.

Vernon found that the U. A, the major trading partner of Canada, were relatively more capital- intensive than her imports. Capital inputs are not homogenous across industries. Such models are not compatible with the domestic conditions of international trade in which the technological developments do bring about changes in the input-output co-efficients and trade can have significant influence on the composition of production and structure of industries.

As such, if input of US labour was adjusted that is, multiplied by a factor of three, US would be ranked as a labour-abundant country. However, Leontief found very few believers among economists.


As the number of outputs leontife, it becomes exceedingly difficult to predict the patterns of output trade. Baldwin pointed out that the exclusion of even natural-resource industries was not enough to repudiate the paradox. However, no one argued that demand bias was a cause of the LP.

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. It assumes that a commodity cloth is labour-intensive both in the U.

The Leontief Paradox to Heckscher-Ohlin Theory | Economics

The value of extra human capital embodied in labor is: He then estimated the capital and labor requirements to produce: If the US exports agricultural products, then an LP occurs in India, because a labor-abundant country, India, is importing the labor-intensive good. A study made by Kravis showed that the labour-intensive industries were most heavily protected in the United States. These economists argue that the United States has an advantage in highly skilled labor more so than capital.

Journal of Political Economy, Vol. Inthis net-export of indirect man-hours was equal to 1, man-years Casas et al. Roughly half the countries tested show trade patterns consistent with ttheory HO theory.

The value of output derived from a given stock of materials and human resources increases on account of research and development activity. These analyses show that presence of human capital can play an important role in determining trade patterns between coutries.

If a commodity is produced by a labor-intensive process in the labor-rich country and also by the capital-intensive process in the capital-rich country, then factor intensities are reversed in the production of that commodity. Suppose the US is poor in natural resources.


Masahiro Tatemoto and Shinich Ichimura Explanation: From their viewpoint, Japanese exports to them were capital-intensive. He confirmed Leontief paradox and found that the U.

However, estimates of human capital is internatiional to the interest rate chosen.

Leontief paradox | Augusta Nduka –

Firstly, these countries depend greatly on the technology imported from the advanced countries, as they do not themselves have an indigenous technology suited to their own factor endowments. Buchanan has criticized Leontief for having neglected the role of natural resources in the leontjef of trade pattern. However, it is the trafe human capital embodied in labor in the export sector that counts here. He rather tried to explain the reasons due to which he arrived at a result different from that provided tradde the H-O theory.

In this way, their findings confirmed the validity of H-O theory. Houthakker do not accept this argument. Similarly, New Trade Theory argues that comparative advantages can develop separately from factor endowment variation e. Some explanations for the paradox dismiss the importance of comparative advantage as a determinant of trade.

The efficient utilization of capital requires large amounts of natural resources also. At the same time, her exports to these countries were relatively capital- intensive and imports labour-intensive. InLeontief conducted an empirical test of the H-O theory by applying his input- output technique on American trade data of

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