Engelbart: “Augmenting Human Intellect”. “By “augmenting human intellect” we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex. C. Engelbart, and William K. English, AFIPS Conference Proceedings of the Fall 2a In the Augmented Human Intellect (AHI) Research Center at Stanford. Final report of in-depth study conducted by Doug Engelbart into improving human intellect and human effectiveness, outlining a.
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Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework
Views Read Ontellect View history. Before a research program can be designed to pursue such an approach intelligently, so that practical benefits might be derived within a reasonable time while also producing results of longrange significance, a conceptual framework must be searched out—a framework that provides orientation as to augmentinh important factors of the system, the relationships among these factors, the types of change among the system factors that offer likely improvements in performance, and the sort of research goals and methodology that ejgelbart promising.
With a “pointer,” he indicates two points of interest, moves his left hand rapidly over the keyboard, and the distance and elevation between the points indicated appear on the right-hand third of the screen.
He may perish in conflict before he learns to wield that record for his true good.
Intelligence amplification – Wikipedia
In the first search phase of our program we have developed a conceptual framework that seems satisfactory for the current needs of designing a research phase. This kind of system approach to human intellectual effectiveness does not find a ready-made conceptual framework such as exists for established disciplines.
It seems reasonable to consider the development of automated external symbol manipulation means as a next stage in the evolution of our intellectual power. The chemist, struggling with the synthesis of an organic compound, has all the chemical literature before him in his laboratory, with trails following the analogies of compounds, and side trails to their physical and chemical behavior.
Then he brought out some general considerations for hope: Both the language used by a culture, and the capability for effective intellectual activity are directly affected himan their evolution by the means by which individuals control the external manipulation of symbols.
The direct effect of the external-symbol-manipulation means upon language would produce an indirect effect upon the way of thinking via the Whorfian-hypothesis linkage. They say inellect a lack of words for some types of concepts makes it hard to express those concepts, and thus decreases the likelihood that we will learn much about them.
Normally the necessary equipment would enter the augmentinf slowly; changes from the expected would be small, people would change their ways of doing things a little at a time, and only gradually would their accumulated changes create markets for more radical versions of the equipment.
AI has encountered many fundamental obstacles, inteloect as well as theoretical, which for IA seem moot, as it needs technology merely as an extra support for an autonomous intelligence that has already proven to function. To reflect further upon the implications of this hypothesis, the following hypothetical artifact development can be considered, representing a different type of external symbol intelelct that could have had considerable effect. Their mental capabilities allowed them to develop general concepts from specific instances, predict specific instances from general concepts, associate concepts, remember them, etc.
He views problem solving as being all about information handling: We are generally used to thinking of our symbol structures as a pattern of marks on a sheet of paper. This provide a sort of perspective, sets what type of problems are Keywords involved and reveals where he had to develop this research.
Although the size of the step a human being can take in comprehension, innovation, or execution is small in comparison to the over-all size of the step needed to solve a complex problem, human beings nevertheless do solve complex problems. We are not concerned here with the value derived from human cooperation made possible by speech and writing, both forms of external symbol manipulation. Anything that might have so general an effect upon our mental actions as is implied here, is certainly a candidate for ultimate consideration in the continuing development of our intellectual effectiveness.
Reasoning about naming systems. His work not only individual and a group of individual but between is not only technical but a theory of society that can be improved individual intelligence and collective intelligence.
Engelbart: “Augmenting Human Intellect”
To most people who initially consider the possibilities for computer-like devices augmenting the human intellect, it is only the one-pass improvement that comes to mind, which presents augmentiing picture that is relatively barren compared to that which emerges when one considers this regenerative interaction.
A intellecf runs through it at will, stopping at interesting items, going off on side excursions. But a intelkect comes to mind immediately as an image of a quick stop and an arm stab back toward the door, with motion and timing that could prevent the collision, and the solution is accepted and enacted.
A number of useful new structuring processes can be made available to an individual through development and use of relatively simple equipment that is mostly electromechanical in nature and relatively cheap.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. We don’t mean to imply by this that we renounce theories of mental processes.
Within our framework we have developed the working assumption that the manner in which we seem to be able to provide experiences that favor the development of our mental structures is based upon concepts as a “medium of exchange. Consider a given capability Capability 1 at some level in the repertoire hierarchy. In a very real sense, as represented by the steady evolution of our augmentation means, the development of “artificial intelligence” has been going on for centuries.
First he runs through augmentlng encyclopedia, finds and interesting but sketchy article, leaves it projected, Next, in a history, he finds another pertinent item, and ties the two together.
All of this means that a significant improvement in symbol-structure manipulation through better process structuring initially perhaps through much better artifacts should enable us to develop improvements in concept and mental-structure manipulations that can in turn enable us to organize and execute symbol-manipulation processes of increased power.
And suppose that there was only so much applicable talent available to the total system. But an active research effort, aimed at exploring and evaluating possible integrated changes throughout the repertoire hierarchy, could greatly accelerate this evolutionary process.
Assume that the human is in the middle of the process of making a telephone call. The explicit new system we contemplate will involve as artifacts computers, and computer-controlled information-storage, information-handling, and information-display devices. The English language since Shakespeare has undergone no alteration comparable to the alteration in the engelbaft environment; if it had, Shakespeare would no longer be accessible to us.
It is also clear that many of the tests used for measuring “intelligence” are scored essentially according to the candidate’s power of appropriate selection. For present purposes, we can view a concept structure as something which we might try to develop on paper for ourselves or work with by conscious thought processes, or as something which we try to communicate to one another in serious discussion.
This was implied in the earlier statement that every composite process of the system decomposes ultimately into explicit-human and explicit-artifact processes.
Instead, he begins from a group of basic sensory-mental-motor process capabilities, and adds to these certain of the process capabilities of his artifacts.
The lawyer has at his touch the associated opinions and decisions of his whole experience, and of the experience of friends and authorities.
Not only do my own thoughts produce results in this fashion, but when I digest the writings of another person, I find generally anyway that I have extracted from his structure and integrated into my own a specific selection of facts, considerations, ideas, etc. However the importance of Engelbart work lies in system involve primarly an augmented-user who must try to solve his vionary thinking of use networked computers to solve the a complex problem concerning his working field.